Housing in Canada Online

Reference Counts and the Definition of CMHC's Core Housing Need Universe

Not all households enumerated by the Census of Canada can be assessed for core housing need. Housing adequacy and suitability can be measured for all households, while affordability can only be measured and interpreted for households that report positive incomes which exceed their shelter costs. Shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) for households with incomes less than or equal to zero, or STIRs derived from the census that are equal to or greater than 100% are considered uninterpretable by CMHC for the purpose of measuring affordability.

In addition, the Census does not collect shelter cost data for farm households and households living in band housing on, or outside, reserves. Without shelter costs, CMHC is unable to assess these households for the affordability component of core housing need.

CMHC therefore examines core housing need on a reduced universe of households for which all three housing standards (adequacy, affordability and suitability) can be applied. This universe includes only non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios less than 100%. As a result, we are providing you with reference counts to show how the reduced universe differs from the complete universe of all private households.

For more information on CMHC's housing standards, please consult our Definitions.

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Suppression of Data

Census data obtained by CMHC are subject to Statistics Canada's suppression rules. These rules are required by law to ensure confidentiality.

Data may not sum to totals due to suppression and random rounding applied by Statistics Canada. Where there are a large number of households, rounding has little effect on accuracy and data suppression is rare. However, small cell counts (i.e.: counts falling below 100 households) and percentages based on those counts (like the incidence of need) may suffer considerable distortion as a result of random rounding and suppression.

Some data on average household income, average shelter costs and average STIRs are suppressed by Statistics Canada to ensure confidentiality. For more information regarding the suppression of census data, please consult Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

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HiCO Reference Counts

Reference household counts for Canada, the provinces and the territories are included below so that you may use them as a verification tool. Whenever you create a table from HiCO, we recommend that you include the total for Canada or at least one province or territory in your table. The total(s) you have included in your table(s) can then be checked against those we have provided in the reference count tables included below.

For example, if you create a table to study Canada, the reference count tables below show that you should have a total of 11,766,145 households in your table. This is the total number of households tested for core housing need in 2006.

For all the reference count tables:

Households excluded from examination for core housing need consist of households living on farms, on reserves or in band housing outside reserves as well as any households with incomes less than or equal to zero and/or shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) greater than or equal to 100%.

Households examined for core housing need include non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and STIRs less than 100%.

For more information on the source of the data used in HiCO, please click here.

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Canada
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Yukon Territory
Northwest Territories
Nunavut

Canada

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

12,437,470

11,562,975

10,820,050

10,018,265

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

671,325

757,360

792,210

646,535

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

11,766,145

100.0

10,805,615

100.0

10,027,840

100.0

9,371,730

100.0

Above Housing Standards

8,177,025

69.5

7,556,660

69.9

6,798,750

67.8

6,532,510

69.7

Below Housing Standards

3,589,120

30.5

3,248,955

30.1

3,229,090

32.2

2,839,225

30.3

Not in Core Housing Need

2,094,725

17.8

1,763,615

16.3

1,661,910

16.6

1,569,240

16.7

In Core Housing Need

1,494,395

12.7

1,485,335

13.7

1,567,180

15.6

1,269,980

13.6

Aboriginal households examined for core housing need in HiCO

401,145

100.0

297,285

100.0

218,310

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

239,645

59.7

168,555

56.7

111,845

51.2

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

161,495

40.3

128,735

43.3

106,465

48.8

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

79,685

19.9

57,470

19.3

40,375

18.5

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

81,810

20.4

71,265

24.0

66,090

30.3

n.a.

n.a.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

197,185

189,040

185,495

174,495

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

5,425

7,375

7,680

4,735

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

191,760

100.0

181,665

100.0

177,815

100.0

169,760

100.0

Above Housing Standards

144,025

75.1

134,020

73.8

130,890

73.6

123,535

72.8

Below Housing Standards

47,730

24.9

47,650

26.2

46,925

26.4

46,220

27.2

Not in Core Housing Need

20,425

10.7

21,040

11.6

20,615

11.6

21,590

12.7

In Core Housing Need

27,310

14.2

26,605

14.6

26,305

14.8

24,630

14.5

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

9,685

100.0

6,650

100.0

4,625

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

6,630

68.5

4,180

62.9

2,860

61.8

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

3,055

31.5

2,470

37.1

1,760

38.1

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

1,180

12.2

985

14.8

790

17.1

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

1,870

19.3

1,485

22.3

975

21.1

n.a.

n.a.

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Prince Edward Island

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

53,135

50,800

47,960

44,475

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

2,250

2,730

2,830

2,775

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

50,885

100.0

48,070

100.0

45,130

100.0

41,700

100.0

Above Housing Standards

36,505

71.7

35,035

72.9

32,165

71.3

30,540

73.2

Below Housing Standards

14,375

28.2

13,035

27.1

12,965

28.7

11,165

26.8

Not in Core Housing Need

7,945

15.6

6,835

14.2

6,905

15.3

5,580

13.4

In Core Housing Need

6,435

12.6

6,195

12.9

6,060

13.4

5,580

13.4

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

705

100.0

385

100.0

315

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

450

63.8

220

57.1

190

60.3

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

250

35.5

165

42.9

125

39.7

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

175

24.8

70

18.2

45

14.3

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

75

10.6

95

24.7

85

27.0

n.a.

n.a.

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Nova Scotia

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

376,840

360,020

342,595

324,375

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

16,080

20,350

19,545

14,730

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

360,760

100.0

339,670

100.0

323,050

100.0

309,645

100.0

Above Housing Standards

256,880

71.2

239,775

70.6

224,205

69.4

218,250

70.5

Below Housing Standards

103,880

28.8

99,895

29.4

98,845

30.6

91,395

29.5

Not in Core Housing Need

60,120

16.7

48,310

14.2

50,740

15.7

49,330

15.9

In Core Housing Need

43,760

12.1

51,585

15.2

48,105

14.9

42,070

13.6

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

8,595

100.0

4,620

100.0

2,630

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

5,435

63.2

2,865

62.0

1,525

58.0

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

3,160

36.8

1,755

38.0

1,105

42.0

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

1,765

20.5

710

15.4

550

20.9

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

1,395

16.2

1,040

22.5

555

21.1

n.a.

n.a.

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New Brunswick

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

295,960

283,820

271,155

253,710

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

11,755

14,995

15,455

10,435

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

284,205

100.0

268,825

100.0

255,700

100.0

243,275

100.0

Above Housing Standards

210,215

74.0

195,735

72.8

181,625

71.0

173,360

71.3

Below Housing Standards

73,990

26.0

73,090

27.2

74,080

29.0

69,910

28.7

Not in Core Housing Need

44,630

15.7

43,100

16.0

39,340

15.4

30,505

12.5

In Core Housing Need

29,365

10.3

29,990

11.2

34,730

13.6

39,405

16.2

Aboriginal households examined for core housing need in HiCO

5,750

100.0

4,755

100.0

2,195

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

3,555

61.8

2,645

55.6

1,145

52.2

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

2,195

38.2

2,110

44.4

1,045

47.6

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

1,325

23.0

1,070

22.5

495

22.6

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

875

15.2

1,040

21.9

550

25.1

n.a.

n.a.

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Quebec

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

3,189,340

2,978,115

2,822,030

2,634,300

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

127,925

165,340

200,405

154,385

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

3,061,415

100.0

2,812,775

100.0

2,621,625

100.0

2,479,915

100.0

Above Housing Standards

2,192,805

71.6

2,016,245

71.7

1,779,620

67.9

1,711,510

69.0

Below Housing Standards

868,615

28.4

796,535

28.3

842,005

32.1

768,405

31.0

Not in Core Housing Need

544,025

17.8

444,180

15.8

415,355

15.8

408,415

16.5

In Core Housing Need

324,590

10.6

352,355

12.5

426,650

16.3

359,990

14.5

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

39,560

100.0

23,410

100.0

19,920

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

24,810

62.7

14,440

61.7

11,440

57.4

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

14,745

37.3

8,965

38.3

8,480

42.6

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

8,305

21.0

4,515

19.3

3,885

19.5

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

6,445

16.3

4,450

19.0

4,590

23.0

n.a.

n.a.

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Ontario

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

4,555,025

4,219,415

3,924,510

3,638,360

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

235,880

237,870

244,195

204,460

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

4,319,145

100.0

3,981,545

100.0

3,680,315

100.0

3,433,900

100.0

Above Housing Standards

2,896,670

67.1

2,723,375

68.4

2,422,530

65.8

2,360,560

68.7

Below Housing Standards

1,422,475

32.9

1,258,170

31.6

1,257,785

34.2

1,073,335

31.3

Not in Core Housing Need

794,940

18.4

658,510

16.5

663,540

18.0

665,305

19.4

In Core Housing Need

627,535

14.5

599,655

15.1

594,250

16.1

408,035

11.9

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

101,225

100.0

72,310

100.0

50,245

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

62,240

61.5

43,315

59.9

26,510

52.8

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

38,990

38.5

28,995

40.1

23,735

47.2

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

20,050

19.8

14,100

19.5

9,845

19.6

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

18,940

18.7

14,900

20.6

13,885

27.6

n.a.

n.a.

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Manitoba

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

448,780

432,550

419,385

405,120

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

34,465

42,735

44,765

41,050

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

414,320

100.0

389,815

100.0

374,620

100.0

364,070

100.0

Above Housing Standards

302,070

72.9

280,680

72.0

265,745

70.9

258,295

70.9

Below Housing Standards

112,245

27.1

109,135

28.0

108,870

29.1

105,775

29.1

Not in Core Housing Need

65,330

15.8

63,740

16.4

53,860

14.4

55,255

15.2

In Core Housing Need

46,920

11.3

45,390

11.6

55,010

14.7

50,525

13.9

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

50,700

100.0

38,950

100.0

28,935

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

30,045

59.3

21,765

55.9

14,030

48.5

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

20,660

40.7

17,190

44.1

14,905

51.5

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

9,295

18.3

7,120

18.3

5,060

17.5

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

11,365

22.4

10,065

25.8

9,835

34.0

n.a.

n.a.

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Saskatchewan

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

387,145

379,675

372,820

363,150

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

40,500

56,610

58,385

58,785

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

346,650

100.0

323,065

100.0

314,435

100.0

304,365

100.0

Above Housing Standards

253,040

73.0

240,045

74.3

238,290

75.8

229,215

75.3

Below Housing Standards

93,605

27.0

83,020

25.7

76,145

24.2

75,145

24.7

Not in Core Housing Need

52,770

15.2

45,860

14.2

36,460

11.6

29,740

9.8

In Core Housing Need

40,840

11.8

37,160

11.5

39,680

12.6

45,405

14.9

Aboriginal households examined for core housing need in HiCO

35,360

100.0

29,600

100.0

22,480

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

19,190

54.3

15,535

52.5

10,655

47.4

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

16,165

45.7

14,065

47.5

11,820

52.6

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

6,910

19.5

5,565

18.8

3,870

17.2

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

9,255

26.2

8,500

28.7

7,950

35.4

n.a.

n.a.

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Alberta

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

1,256,200

1,104,095

979,175

910,390

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

72,225

89,915

88,005

81,660

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

1,183,975

100.0

1,014,180

100.0

891,170

100.0

828,730

100.0

Above Housing Standards

860,220

72.7

738,750

72.8

643,285

72.2

598,000

72.2

Below Housing Standards

323,755

27.3

275,430

27.2

247,885

27.8

230,730

27.8

Not in Core Housing Need

204,700

17.3

169,150

16.7

147,105

16.5

124,950

15.1

In Core Housing Need

119,055

10.1

106,285

10.5

100,775

11.3

105,780

12.8

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

65,460

100.0

48,125

100.0

34,115

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

40,850

62.4

27,665

57.5

18,050

52.9

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

24,610

37.6

20,465

42.5

16,065

47.1

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

13,400

20.5

10,940

22.7

6,875

20.2

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

11,205

17.1

9,530

19.8

9,190

26.9

n.a.

n.a.

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British Columbia

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

1,643,150

1,534,335

1,424,635

1,243,890

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

123,015

117,605

109,240

72,515

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

1,520,135

100.0

1,416,730

100.0

1,315,395

100.0

1,171,375

100.0

Above Housing Standards

1,003,735

66.0

934,590

66.0

863,055

65.6

814,475

69.5

Below Housing Standards

516,400

34.0

482,140

34.0

452,340

34.4

356,900

30.5

Not in Core Housing Need

294,925

19.4

258,465

18.2

223,370

17.0

174,395

14.9

In Core Housing Need

221,475

14.6

223,670

15.8

228,970

17.4

182,510

15.6

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

68,810

100.0

55,025

100.0

40,725

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

38,515

56.0

28,810

52.4

19,475

47.8

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

30,295

44.0

26,215

47.6

21,250

52.2

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

14,945

21.7

10,525

19.1

7,095

17.4

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

15,350

22.3

15,690

28.5

14,160

34.8

n.a.

n.a.

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Yukon Territory

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

12,610

11,360

11,460

9,915

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

1,110

1,140

1,225

620

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

11,505

100.0

10,220

100.0

10,235

100.0

9,295

100.0

Above Housing Standards

8,005

69.6

6,905

67.6

6,685

65.3

6,010

64.7

Below Housing Standards

3,495

30.4

3,310

32.4

3,550

34.7

3,285

35.3

Not in Core Housing Need

1,615

14.0

1,700

16.6

1,580

15.4

1,770

19.0

In Core Housing Need

1,880

16.3

1,615

15.8

1,970

19.2

1,515

16.3

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

2,615

100.0

2,100

100.0

1,680

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

1,555

59.5

1,235

58.8

925

55.1

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

1,055

40.3

860

41.0

755

44.9

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

415

15.9

330

15.7

260

15.5

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

640

24.5

530

25.2

495

29.5

n.a.

n.a.

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Northwest Territories

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

14,240

12,565

18,825

16,075

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

550

580

480

370

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

13,690

100.0

11,985

100.0

18,345

100.0

15,705

100.0

Above Housing Standards

8,840

64.6

7,645

63.8

10,650

58.1

8,755

55.7

Below Housing Standards

4,845

35.4

4,345

36.3

7,700

42.0

6,950

44.3

Not in Core Housing Need

2,455

17.9

2,255

18.8

3,030

16.5

2,405

15.3

In Core Housing Need

2,390

17.5

2,085

17.4

4,665

25.4

4,540

28.9

Aboriginal households examined for core housing need in HiCO

6,690

100.0

5,770

100.0

10,455

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

3,675

54.9

3,145

54.5

5,035

48.2

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

3,020

45.1

2,625

45.5

5,420

51.8

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

1,265

18.9

1,165

20.2

1,595

15.3

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

1,760

26.3

1,460

25.3

3,825

36.6

n.a.

n.a.

Note that, in 1999, Nunavut was established as a territory distinct from the Northwest Territories (N.W.T.). As a result, beginning with the 2001 Census, data for Nunavut are presented exclusive of N.W.T. To compare 2001 Census data for N.W.T. to N.W.T. data in earlier censuses, the 2001 data for the N.W.T. and Nunavut must be combined.

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Nunavut

2006

2001

1996

1991

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

All Private Households

7,855

7,170

n.a.

n.a.

Households Excluded from Examination for Core Housing Need in HiCO

155

100

n.a.

n.a.

Households Examined for Core Housing Need in HiCO

7,700

100.0

7,070

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

4,005

52.0

3,855

54.5

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

3,695

48.0

3,210

45.4

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

825

10.7

470

6.6

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

2,865

37.2

2,740

38.8

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Aboriginal households examioned for core housing need in HiCO

5,995

100.0

5,580

100.0

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Above Housing Standards

2,695

45.0

2,730

48.9

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Below Housing Standards

3,300

55.0

2,855

51.2

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Not in Core Housing Need

650

10.8

370

6.6

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

In Core Housing Need

2,650

44.2

2,485

44.5

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Note that, in 1999, Nunavut was established as a territory distinct from the Northwest Territories (N.W.T.). As a result, beginning with the 2001 Census, data for Nunavut are presented exclusive of N.W.T.

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Canada