Housing in Canada Online

Definitions of Variables

Aboriginal Household Status
Age
Non-senior-led households
Senior-led households
Average Household Income
Average Shelter Cost
Average Shelter-Cost-to-Income Ratio (STIR)
Core Housing Need Status
Count
Geography
Census Agglomerations
Census Metropolitan Areas
Communautés Urbaines
Complete geographic listing of communities available in HiCO
Canada
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Yukon Territory
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Regional Districts
Regional Municipalities
Household Type
Family household
Multiple-family household
Non-family household
Housing Standards
Acceptable housing
Housing below standards
Adequate housing
Affordable housing
Suitable housing
Tenure
Owned
Rented
Year

Aboriginal Household Status

Aboriginal household status refers to whether or not a household is classified as being an Aboriginal household. An Aboriginal household is defined by CMHC as one of the following:

  • a non-family household in which at least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal; or
  • a family household that meets at least one of two criteria:
    - at least one spouse, common-law partner, or lone parent self-identified as an Aboriginal;
    or
    - at least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal.

A person self-identifies as being Aboriginal on the census questionnaire. Aboriginal identities include North American Indians (both status and non-status), Métis and Inuit.

NOTE 1: HiCO data, for 1996, 2001 and 2006, define Aboriginal households using the Aboriginal identity of household members. By contrast, in 1991, Aboriginal households could only be defined using the ethnic origins of household members. Since ethnic origins and Aboriginal identity are very different concepts that produce very different estimates for households, HiCO provides only 1996, 2001 and 2006 Census data, in order to ensure the comparability of household estimates. For more information on Aboriginal identity and ethnic origins, please consult Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

NOTE 2: To ensure the data available are as reliable and useful as possible, Aboriginal data are only presented in HiCO for communities with at least 100 Aboriginal households.

Back to top

Age

Refers to age ranges for the primary household maintainer. The primary household maintainer refers to the person in the household most responsible for paying the rent or mortgage, the taxes, the electricity, etc., for the dwelling. If no person in the household is responsible for such payments, the household member indicated on the questionnaire as "Person 1"; is considered to be the only household maintainer. In order for a person identified as being responsible for the household payments to be considered as the household maintainer, that person must be 15 years of age or older and be related to Person 1 in terms other than as a lodger or an employee (or as a member of a lodger's or an employee's census family).

Non-senior-led households

The primary household maintainer is less than 65 years of age.

Senior-led households

The primary household maintainer is aged 65 or over.

Back to top

Average Household Income

Average household income refers to the total annual before-tax household income from all sources for all members of the household 15 years of age or over. Income sources include, but are not limited to, employment income, investment income, and transfer payments from the government.

NOTE: Average households incomes are in current dollar values.

Back to top

Average Shelter Cost

Average shelter cost refers to the total monthly shelter cost paid by the household for their dwelling. Shelter costs include the following:

  • For renters: rent and any payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services;

  • For owners: mortgage payments (principal and interest), property taxes, and any condominium fees, along with payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services.

NOTE: Average shelter costs are in current dollar values.

Back to top

Average Shelter-Cost-to-Income Ratio (STIR)

Average shelter-cost-to-income ratio (STIR) refers to the proportion of total before-tax household income spent on shelter. The shelter-cost-to-income ratio is calculated for each household individually by dividing its total annual shelter cost by its total annual income. The average STIR is then computed by taking the average of the individual households' STIRs.

NOTE: The average STIR is not calculated by dividing the average shelter cost by the average household income.

Back to top

Core Housing Need Status

A household is said to be in core housing need if its housing falls below at least one of the adequacy, affordability or suitability, standards and it would have to spend 30% or more of its total before-tax income to pay the median rent of alternative local housing that is acceptable (meets all three housing standards).

  • Adequate housing are reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs.
  • Affordable dwellings costs less than 30% of total before-tax household income.
  • Suitable housing has enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident households, according to National Occupancy Standard (NOS) requirements.

A household is not in core housing need if its housing meets all of the adequacy, suitability and affordability standards
OR,
If its housing does not meet one or more of these standards, but it has sufficient income to obtain alternative local housing that is acceptable (meets all three standards).

NOTE: Regardless of their circumstances, non-family households led by maintainers 15 to 29 years of age attending school full-time are considered to be in a transitional stage of life and therefore not in core housing need.

Back to top

Count

The household count refers to the number of households being examined.

Back to top

Geography

The geographic coverage in HiCO includes Canada, the provinces, and territories, as well as Communautés Urbaines (CUs), Regional Districts (RDs) and Regional Municipalities (RMs), Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and Census Agglomerations (CAs).

NOTE: These data reflect boundaries in existence at the time of the 2006, 2001, 1996 or 1991 Censuses. They are not adjusted for any changes in the boundaries of CMAs, CAs or Regional Municipalities that occurred between 1991 and 2006. In addition, the CMA and CA totals for Canada include only those areas which were CMAs or CAs in the reference year and are not adjusted for changes which occurred in the number of communities classified as CMAs and CAs between 1991 and 2006.

Back to top

Census Agglomerations

A Census Agglomeration (CA) is an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core with a population of at least 10,000. As of 2006, there were 111 CAs across Canada. The All-CA total represents all the CAs in Canada for the respective year (for example, communities that were not CAs in 2006 are not included in the 2006 All-CA total). See Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

Back to top

Census Metropolitan Areas

A Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) is an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core with a population of at least 50,000, and included 33 centres across Canada in 2006. Prior to 2006, the threshold to be a CMA was an urban core with a population of at least 100,000. The All-CMA total represents all the CMAs in Canada for the respective year (for example, communities that were not CMAs in 2006 are not included in the 2006 All-CMA total). See Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

Back to top

Communauté urbaine

A communauté urbaine is a type of Census Division, that is, a geographic area between the municipal and provincial levels, determined by Statistics Canada according to provincial administrative areas. HiCO contains data on 3 communautés urbaines in Quebec. For more information, please consult Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

Back to top

Complete geographic listing of communities available in HiCO

Canada
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Yukon Territory
Northwest Territories
Nunavut

 

Census Years
Available

CANADA

(1991 - 2006)

 

Canada - Total Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs)

(1991 - 2006)

Canada - Total Census Agglomerations (CAs)

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

(1991 - 2006)

 

St. John's - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Bay Roberts - CA

(2006)

Corner Brook - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Gander - CA

(1991 - 2001)

Grand Falls - Windsor - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Labrador City - CA

(1991 - 2001)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND

(1991 - 2006)

 

Charlottetown - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Summerside - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

NOVA SCOTIA

(1991 - 2006)

 

Cape Breton Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

Halifax Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

Queens Regional Municipality

(2006)

Halifax - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Cape Breton - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Kentville - CA

(1991 - 2006)

New Glasgow - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Truro - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

NEW BRUNSWICK

(1991 - 2006)

 

Moncton - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Saint John - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Bathurst - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Campbellton - CA (Total)

(1991 - 2006)

Campbellton - CA (New Brunswick Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Edmundston - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Fredericton - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Miramichi - CA

(2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

QUEBEC

(1991 - 2006)

 

Communauté - Urbaine - de - Montréal

(1991 - 2006)

Communauté - Urbaine - de - l'Outaouais

(1991 - 2006)

Communauté - Urbaine - de - Québec

(1991 - 2006)

Gatineau (Quebec Part: Ottawa - Gatineau - CMA)

(1991 - 2006)

Montréal - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Québec - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Saguenay - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Sherbrooke - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Trois - Rivières - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Alma - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Amos - CA

(2001 - 2006)

Baie-Comeau - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Campbellton - CA (Quebec Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Cowansville - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Dolbeau - Mistassini - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Drummondville - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Granby - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Hawkesbury - CA (Quebec Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Joliette - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Lachute - CA

(1991 - 2006)

La Tuque - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Magog - CA

(1991 - 2001)

Matane - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Pembroke - CA (Quebec Part)

(1991 - 2001)

Rimouski - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Rivière - du - Loup - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Rouyn - Noranda - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Saint - Georges - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Saint - Hyacinthe - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Saint - Jean - sur - Richelieu - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Saint - Jérôme - CA

(1991)

Salaberry - de - Valleyfield - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Sept - Îles - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Shawinigan - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Sorel - Tracy - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Thetford Mines - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Val - d"Or - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Victoriaville - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

ONTARIO

(1991 - 2006)

 

Durham Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

Haldimand - Norfolk Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2001)

Halton Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

Niagara Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

Peel Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

Waterloo Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

York Regional Municipality

(1991 - 2006)

The City of Greater Sudbury

(1991 - 2006)

The City of Hamilton

(1991 - 2006)

The City of Ottawa

(1991 - 2006)

The City of Toronto

(1991 - 2006)

Barrie - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Brantford - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Greater Sudbury - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Guelph - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Hamilton - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Kingston - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Kitchener - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

London - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Oshawa - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Ottawa - Gatineau - CMA(Total)

(1991 - 2006)

Ottawa (Ontario Part: Ottawa - Gatineau - CMA)

(1991 - 2006)

Peterborough - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

St. Catharines - Niagara - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Thunder Bay - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Toronto - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Windsor - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Belleville - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Brockville - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Centre Wellington - CA

(2006)

Chatham - Kent - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Cobourg - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Collingwood - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Cornwall - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Elliot Lake - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Hawkesbury - CA (Total)

(1991 - 2006)

Hawkesbury - CA (Ontario Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Ingersoll - CA

(2006)

Kawartha Lakes - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Kenora - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Kirkland Lake - CA

(1991)

Leamington - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Midland - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Norfolk - CA

(1991 - 2006)

North Bay - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Orillia - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Owen Sound - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Pembroke - CA (Total)

(1991 - 2006)

Pembroke - CA (Ontario Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Petawawa - CA

(2001 - 2006)

Port Hope and Hope - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Sarnia - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Sault Ste. Marie - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Smiths Falls - CA

(1996)

Stratford - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Strathroy - CA

(1996)

Temiskaming Shores - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Tillsonburg - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Timmins - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Wallaceburg - CA

(1991)

Woodstock - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

MANITOBA

(1991 - 2006)

 

Winnipeg - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Brandon - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Portage la Prairie - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Selkirk - CA

(1991)

Thompson - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

SASKATCHEWAN

(1991 - 2006)

 

Regina - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Saskatoon - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Estevan - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Lloydminster - CA (Saskatchewan Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Moose Jaw - CA

(1991 - 2006)

North Battleford - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Prince Albert - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Swift Current - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Weyburn - CA

(1991)

Yorkton - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

ALBERTA

(1991 - 2006)

 

Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo

(1991 - 2006)

Calgary - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Edmonton - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Brooks - CA

(2001 - 2006)

Camrose - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Canmore - CA

(2006)

Cold Lake - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Grande Prairie - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Lethbridge - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Lloydminster - CA (Total)

(1991 - 2006)

Lloydminster - CA (Alberta Part)

(1991 - 2006)

Medicine Hat - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Okotoks - CA

(2006)

Red Deer - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Wetaskiwin - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Wood Buffalo - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

BRITISH COLUMBIA

(1991 - 2006)

 

Alberni - Clayoquot Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Bulkley - Nechako Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Capital Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Cariboo Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Central Coast Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Central Fraser Valley Regional District

(1991)

Central Kootenay Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Central Okanagan Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Columbia - Shuswap Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Comox - Strathcona Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Cowichan Valley Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Dewdney - Alouette Regional District

(1991)

East Kootenay Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Fraser - Fort George Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Fraser Valley Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Greater Vancouver Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Kitimat - Stikine Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Kootenay Boundary Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Mount Waddington Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Nanaimo Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

North Okanagan Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Northern Rockies Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Peace River Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Powell River Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Skeena - Queen Charlotte Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Squamish - Lillooet Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Stikine Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Sunshine Coast Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Thompson - Nicola Regional District

(1991 - 2006)

Abbotsford - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Kelowna - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Vancouver - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Victoria - CMA

(1991 - 2006)

Campbell River - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Chilliwack - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Courtnenay - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Cranbrook - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Dawson Creek - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Duncan - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Fort St. John - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Kamloops - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Kitimat - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Nanaimo - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Parksville - CA

(2001 - 2006)

Penticton - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Port Alberni - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Powell River - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Prince George - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Prince Rupert - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Quesnel - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Salmon Arm - CA

(2006)

Squamish - CA

(2001 - 2006)

Terrace - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Vernon - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Williams Lake - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

YUKON TERRITORY

(1991 - 2006)

 

Whitehorse - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

(1991 - 2006)

 

Yellowknife - CA

(1991 - 2006)

Back to top

 

Census Years
Available

NUNAVUT

(2001 - 2006)

NOTE: that, in 1999, Nunavut was established as a territory distinct from the Northwest Territories (N.W.T.). As a result, beginning with the 2001 Census, data for Nunavut are presented exclusive of N.W.T.

Back to top

Regional Districts

A regional district is a type of Census Division, that is, a geographic area between the municipal and provincial levels, determined by Statistics Canada according to provincial administrative areas. HiCO contains data on 30 regional districts in British Columbia. For more information, please consult Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

Back to top

Regional Municipalities

A regional municipality is a type of Census Division, that is, a geographic area between the municipal and provincial levels, determined by Statistics Canada according to provincial administrative areas. HiCO contains data on 3 regional municipalities in Nova Scotia, 11 in Ontario and 1 in Alberta. For more information, please consult Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

Back to top

Household Type

Refers to the basic division of private households into family and non-family households. For more information, please consult Statistics Canada's 2006 Census Dictionary.

Family household

Refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without children of either or both partners) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. 'Children' in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present. Prior to the 2001 Census, the sons or daughters had to have never been married to be considered children in the household. Most of these couple and lone-parent families live in one-family households. However, a few reside in multiple-family households.

Back to top

Multiple-family household

A multiple-family household is made up of two or more families (with or without additional non-family persons) occupying the same private dwelling.

Back to top

Non-family household

A non-family household consists either of one person living alone in a private dwelling or of two or more people who share a private dwelling but who do not constitute a family.

Back to top

Housing Standards

Indicates whether households live in accommodation that meets or falls short of the adequacy, affordability and suitability housing standards.

Acceptable housing

Acceptable housing refers to housing that is adequate in condition, suitable in size, and affordable.

Back to top

Housing below standards

Housing below standards refers to housing that falls short of at least one of the adequacy, affordability and suitability housing standards.

NOTE: The total number of households below housing standards will not be the sum of the number below the individual standards since some households are below two or more housing standards. For example, a household living below both the affordability and adequacy standards would be counted as being under both standards, resulting in double counting when the two standards are added together.

Back to top

Adequate housing

Adequate housing does not require any major repairs, according to residents.

Back to top

Affordable housing

Affordable housing costs less than 30% of before-tax household income. Shelter costs include the following:

  • For renters: rent and any payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services;

  • For owners: mortgage payments (principal and interest), property taxes, and any condominium fees, along with payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services.

Back to top

Suitable housing

Suitable housing has enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident households, according to National Occupancy Standard (NOS) requirements. Enough bedrooms based on NOS requirements means one bedroom for:

  • each cohabiting adult couple;
  • unattached household member 18 years of age and over;
  • same-sex pair of children under age 18;
  • and additional boy or girl in the family, unless there are two opposite sex children under 5 years of age, in which case they are expected to share a bedroom.

A household of one individual can occupy a bachelor unit (i.e. a unit with no bedroom).

Back to top

Tenure

Refers to whether some member of the household owns or rents the dwelling.

Owned

A dwelling is classified as "owned" even if it is not fully paid for, that is, even if it has a mortgage or some other claim on it. The dwelling may be situated on rented or leased land or be part of a condominium (whether registered or unregistered).

Back to top

Rented

A dwelling is classified as "rented" even if it is provided without cash rent or at a reduced rent or if the dwelling is part of a cooperative.

Back to top

Year

The year refers to the census from which the data are derived: 2006, 2001, 1996 or 1991.

Back to top

Canada